FAIRLANE SERVICES
   
 

Our goal is to provide high quality maintenance services.  Our services can be adjusted to any customers specific needs.

Below you can read about all our services.  You will also find you can click on the following links to other services we offer.

All Services Dumpster Cleaning No touch kitchen Cleaning

 

TECHNIQUES

OF

FLOOR

MAINTENANCE

 

HOW TO

WET MOP

FLOORS

 

PURPOSE:

To clean a floor by removing water soluble stains and soil.

 

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT:

                  2 buckets on a cart or dolly                                                CLEANING SOLUTION

                  Wringer                                                                         Fresh Water

                  “Floor Hazard” signs                                                   Cotton mop

 

PROCEDURE:

 

  • Prepare area:
    • Place “ Floor Hazard” signs in easy-to-see locations at entrances to the room or area
    • Dust mop floor
    • Move furniture as needed for easier mopping.
  • Follow instructions for using the cleaning solution and pour into bucket until it is ¾ full.  Fill the second bucket ¾ full with fresh water
  • Dip mophead into cleaning solution and wring mophead out slightly.
  • When wet mopping a hallway, first mop the floor along the edge of the baseboard.  The mophead should just touch the baseboard while mapping that part of the floor.  When mopping a room, place the mophead at the baseboard 3’ to 4’ away from the corner and mop toward the corner.  Repeat this mopping procedure.
  • Mop the open floor area by moving the mop side to side in a figure eight motion.  Overlap each stroke as you move back.  Note:  the mophead should pass 1” in front of the shoes.  Hold the mop at a 15° angle from vertical.
  • Each time both sides of the mophead area soiled, rinse mophead in fresh water bucket and wring mophead.  Change water as needed.
  • Again, dip mophead into cleaning solution and repeat procedures until floor has been wet mopped.
  • When using cleaning solutions which have to be rinsed, rinse the floor using only fresh water.
  • After the floor has dried, replace any furniture that was removed for mopping.
  • Clean equipment.  Store equipment and supplies

 

ACCOMPLISHMENT:  By following this procedure for wet mopping, all stains and soils which are water soluble (water can remove them) should be removed from the floor, leaving a clean, fresh floor.

 

CORRECT POSTURE FOR MOPPING:

                  When using a mop, remember:

  • Keep your back straight.  Do not twist your spine
  • Bend at the knees a little.
  • Use the arm muscles to move the mop in a figure eight motion.
  • Hold the mop handle at a 15° angle from vertical.

HOW TO

SCRUB FLOORS

PURPOSE:

To remove build-up of water resistant soil, black heel marks, or heavy dirt deposits from floor.

 

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT:

Two buckets on cart or dolly Fresh water

(One scrub, one rinse)                      Squeegee

Wringer                                                     Floor machine

“Floor Hazard “signs                          Wet/dry vacuum

Wet mops (cotton or blend)

Cleaning solution (neutral Cleaner)

Scrubbing pads: Use either green, blue or brown pad (depending on finish build-up)

PROCEDURE:

  • Prepare area:
    • Place “Floor Hazard” signs in easy-to-see locations at entrances to area where floor is being scrubbed.
    • Dry dust or vacuum floor
    • Move furniture.  Work around heavy furniture which cannot be moved.  Tilt file cabinets and put on blocks.
    • Set equipment in area where work will begin

Note: In a room, begin scrubbing at the corner farthest from the entrance.

  • Follow instructions for using cleaning solution and pour into bucket until ¾ full.  Caution: do not use stripper or butyl cleaners as they will attack floor finish.  Fill second bucket ¾ full with fresh water.
  • Dip mophead into cleaning solution.  Wring slightly and apply to an area about 7’ x 7’.  Let stand 2 to 3 minutes.
  • Machine scrub the wet area using either ETC’s Monster (scrub/spray clean) Pad or ETC’s Green Scrub (nylon) pad.
  • Using a squeegee, move the soiled water to a central point.  Pick up either with a wet/dry vacuum or mop up with mophead
Repeat procedure in section 7’ x 7’ each until entire floor has been scrubbed.  Overlap edges of scrubbed surfaces so no streaking will occur.
  • After floor has been scrubbed, use a mop to apply fresh water to the floor.  Next, squeegee rinse water to a central point.  Then either use a wet/dry vacuum to pick up the rinse water or mop up with a mophead.
  • If needed, apply a coat of finish.  Finish need be applied only when worn down in heavy traffic areas. Caution:  Too much finish on a floor will require stripping.
  • After the floor dries, replace the furniture.
  • Clean and dry equipment.  Store equipment and supplies
  • Hose or flush the scrub pad with hot running water.  Hang scrub pad on wall in storage area to dry.

ACCOMPLISHMENT:

By following this procedure, the floor will be clean and free of soil and heavy dirt deposits which are water resistant.

 

A BACK SAVING TIP:

                  When using the floor machine, remember:

  • Mount the floor pad; adjust the handle waist high.
  • Keep your back straight.  Bend your knees a little
  • Rest the machine handle against you, then turn on the machine
  • Hold both handles to maintain control of the machine
  • Lift up on the handle to move right.  Press down on the handle to move left.

HOW TO STRIP FLOORS

 

PURPOSE

To remove a floor finish (wax) when any of the following occurs:

                  A:              the color begins to turn

                  B:              the finish begins to build up

                  C:              mopping, spray buffing or re-waxing does not give the results desired

 

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

 

                  Treated dust mop                                                                    2 downward pressure wringers

                  Brush and dust pan                                                                 Commercial neutralizer

                  Putty Knife                                                                                   Wet mop

                  Wet/dry vacuum                                                                      Floor machine

                  2 buckets                                                                                       stripping pads

                  Squeegee                                                                                     “Floor Hazard” (Wet Floor) signs

                  Stripping Solution                                                                    Water proof shoe coverings

                  Fresh water (use cool water)

 

PROCEDURE

  • Prepare the area:
    • Place “Floor Hazard” signs in easy-to-see locations at entrances and around area being stripped
    • Move furniture.  Work around heavy furniture or equipment that cannot be moved.  Tilt cabinets and mount on blocks.
    • Sweep the floor with a treated dust mop or vacuum the floor
    • Remove gum and other foreign material with putty knife
    • Place stripping pad on them machine
    • Set equipment in area where work will begin.  In a room start in the farthest corner from the entrance
  • Follow instructions for using the stripping solution and pour into the bucket.  Use cool tap water.  Note:  Hot water can loosen tile adhesive and cause solution to dry to fast.  Also can cause active ingredients of today’s strippers to blow off into air.
  • Dip mophead into stripping solution.  Remove and fan out the mophead on the floor and start applying solution at the edges. (Note: most build-up is at the edges.)
  • Apply the solution in a 6’ to 7’ area or side to side movement to cover the area between the edges.  Cover only a 100 to 125 square foot area at a time.
  • Where splashing on the walls and baseboards occurs, wipe off immediately with a damp cloth.
  • Let the solution soak on the floor 4 to 5 minutes (longer, if necessary).  Do not allow solution to dry on floor.  Apply additional stripping solution to maintain wet floor.
  • Using the floor machine with black or hi-productive stripping pad, strip the area that is covered with solution.  Overlap the stroke made by the machine.
  • While floor is still wet, use the mop and empty bucket or wet/dry vacuum to pick up dirty solution.
  • Allow floor to dry.  Re-strip any high gloss spots.
  • Rinse area using fresh water and mophead which is slightly wrung out.
  • Clean mophead with water after the first rinsing of the floor is complete.
  • Rinse two more times with fresh water.  In the final rinse add commercial neutralizer per the instructions, if available.  If not, use ½ pint of household vinegar to 2 gallons of water.  A neutralized floor gives a much better bond of the finish to the tile.
  • Allow floor to dry at least 1 hour after final rinse.

 

Check floor to be sure it is ready for finish by wiping hand across a section of the floor.  If a white powder comes up, the floor has not been rinsed properly and must be rinsed until no white powder comes up after the floor is dry.  When the white powder no longer comes up on the hand, the floor is ready to be finished (waxed).

 

ACCOMPLISHMENT

After following this procedure the floor will be free of all sealers, finishes, dirt, grime, gum, other foreign matter and have no powdery residue.  The floor is then ready for finish to bond to the floor tile properly.

METHOD OF RESTORING BLEACHED FLOORS

 

 

 

In most cases, you can restore color to the floor by using a pine product, with a 25% pine oil, at a 1 to 1 dilution (1 part product, 1 part water).  Generously apply the pine product to the floor and allow it to sit approximately 10 minutes and machine scrub using a black strip pad.  The floor, incidentally, should have been stripped of all remaining finish.  Afterwards, thoroughly rinse the floor as you would do in any stripping operation, allow to dry and re-coat with a seal and/or finish.  Note that the pine oil will require several rinses to remove all residue.

 

Chris Guillot       

Fairlane Services L.L.C.

 

 

HOW TO

FINISH FLOORS

 

PURPOSE:  To provide a protective floor surface which improves the floor’s appearance and is easy to maintain.  Note:  The thickness of 3 coats of finish (wax) is less than the thickness of wax paper; therefore, the finish (wax) must be applied properly to do the job.

 

 

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT

                  2 buckets on dolly or cart with castors                                          Rayon of Blend wet mop*

                  2 wringers (one per bucket)                                                                Floor Finish

                  Plastic liner                                                                                                     Floor machine (optional)

                  “Floor Hazard” signs                                                                                  Fresh Water

 

*The mop used in this procedure should be clean and used only for floor finishing

 

 

PROCEDURE:

  • Prepare to finish floor area:
    • Follow floor stripping procedure in “How to Strip Floors”.
    • Allow Floor to dry.  Pick up any lint or other foreign material
    • Move supplies and equipment into area where floor is being finished.
    • Place “Floor Hazard” sings at entrances to area if they are not already there.
    • Fill one bucket ¾ full with fresh water
    • Put plastic liner into empty bucket before pouring in the finish, then pour finish into plastic line bucket.  The plastic liner keeps the bucket clean and keeps the finish (wax) from becoming contaminated with residue that might be in the bucket.
  • Dip clean mophead into fresh water and wring out well.
  • Dip the damp mophead into the floor finish (wax) and wring out so mophead does not drip.
  • Starting at the farthest corner from the door, apply a thin coat of finish on the floor next to the baseboard on each side of the corner.  Apply 6’ to 9’ at a time.  Turn mophead often and re-dip in finish before the mophead becomes dried out and streaks the floor.
  • Using a side to side (figure eight) movement, apply the finish to the floor area and overlap the strokes of the mophead. Avoid splashing.  Apply amounts of finish evenly and cover all areas.
  • Allow floor to dry 20-30 minutes or until floor does not feel tacky to the touch.
  • If needed, apply more coats of finish as before except stay 6” to 12” away from the baseboards.  This gets little or no wear since people cannot walk that close to the baseboards.  Multiple coats of finish at the baseboards build up to much

Allow second coat to dry completely.

 

If buffing or burnishing is desired between coats to level the finish and to increase

      The gloss, be sure:

  •  That finish coat is completely dry.
  • To use the correct budding pad on the floor machine or burnisher.

Note:  When buffing or burnishing between applications of coats of finish, be sure to mop the floor with a dry dust mop before applying the next coat.  Buffing between coats is to level the finish and remove moisture to accelerate curing of finish.

 

10. Remove “Floor Hazard” signs after floor is dry.

11. Clean mopheads and buckets.

12. Store equipment and supplies.

                  Reminder:  A buffable finish can be applied on top of a non-buffable finish, but a non-buffable finish cannot be applied on top of a buffable finish.

 

ACCOMPLISHMENT:

By following this floor finishing (waxing) procedure, the floor’s appearance will be

Clean, attractive, and easier to maintain.

HOW TO

SEAL FLOORS

PURPOSE:

To prepare the floor to accept floor finish (wax) by filling the pores of a new floor or of an old porous floor which has been stripped.

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT:

                  Rayon or Blend wet mop                           2 buckets on casters or dolly

                  2 wringers                                             Plastic liners

                  Sealer Solution                                                          Fresh water (cool)

 

PROCEDURE:

  •  Prepare floor area:
  •  Strip floor (see “How to Strip Floors”).
  • Place “Floor Hazard” signs in easy to see locations near entrances to area.
  • Put supplies and equipment in floor area to be sealed.
  • Fill one bucket ¾ full with cool water.
  • Put plastic bag (liner) into the empty bucket that is to be used for the

Sealer solution, then pour sealer into lined bucket.

Using the plastic bag liner keeps the bucket clean and keeps the sealer from                       becoming contaminated with any residue that might be in the bucket.

                  Reminder:  Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for using the sealer.

  •  Dip the mophead into the bucket with water.  Wring out as much as possible.
  • Dip the mophead into the sealer.  Wring out gently so mophead is wet but does not drip.
  • Starting at the floor by one of the baseboards in the farthest corner of the room, outline

The entire area of be sealed if it can be completed before the sealer starts to dry.  If the

Entire area cannot be outlined before the sealer dries, apply the sealer to the floor along

The baseboards, covering as much of the outline as possible.

  • Using a side to side (figure eight) motion, apply the sealer to the floor area inside the

Outlined area starting at the farthest corner and moving backward toward the door. 

Overlap the strokes.  Avoid having puddles of sealer on the floor. 

  • Allow the floor to dry completely before applying any more coats of sealer.
  • A minimum of 2 coats is recommended.

       Note:  While waiting for one coat to dry, be sure to rinse out the mophead.

     When finished, take the plastic liner containing the remaining sealer out of the bucket and   toss away.

      CAUTION:  Dispose of this sealer waste properly.

 

 

     ACCOMPLISHMENT:     After following this floor sealing procedure, the floor should be sealed and ready to accept the floor finish (wax).

HOW TO

SPRAY BUFF FLOORS

 

PURPOSE:  To maintain the floor’s appearance and cleanliness without having to wet scrub or wet strip.  Spray buffing picks up dead finish and dirt, replacing it with a spray buff solution.  It also levels and fills scratches and reduces the need for stripping.

SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT:

                  Treated dust mop

Putty knife

                  Supplies/equipment for damp mopping and dust mopping

                  Disinfectant (if required)

                  Liquid spray buff and clean spray bottle

                  Spray buffing pads.  Red polyester or other pad recommended by

                  Manufacturer designed for spray buffing

PROCEDURE:

  •  Prepare area for spray buffing:

 Place “Floor Hazard” signs at easy to see locations near the entrances

Into the area being spray buffed.

Use a treated dust mop to remove dust and loose soil.

Use a putty knife to remove gum.

Depending on condition of the floor, damp mop if necessary.

If required, disinfect by following disinfectant’s label instructions.

Attach buffing pad to the floor machine.

  • Inspect the room or area to be spray buffed to determine where attention is needed.
  • Starting at the farthest corner from the entrance, spray a 3’ x 5’ area in front of the machine with ready to use spray buff product and buff immediately.  Buff until glossy and not tacky. 

Note:  Do not overspray floor with spray buff liquid, as this will cause loading of

Buffing pad and longer labor effort.

Repeat same spray buffing operation for 3’ to 5’ areas until entire floor has the desired appearance

 

PROSPECTING

 

Obsession, Utilization, Implementation.

 

A solid commitment to prospecting is the one habit that, if developed correctly is most likely to ensure sales success.

 

OBSESSION – Every week I will make five new cold calls.

 

Why Prospect:  Rule of thumb you will lose 20-40% of your customer base each year.

 

Reasons:                *  Switch to a competitor                * Become dissatisfied

  • Move, relocated                      *  Close                                * Other

 

UTILIZATION – Increase your success by utilizing everything at your disposal.

Learn – Learn – Learn - - everything about your products, use brochures, catalog, training tape, DVD’s and maunufacturers websites.  Motivate yourself, show enthusiasm, keep your sense of humor, and stay positive.

 

IMPLEMENTATION – Just do it, make the effort

You can just sit back and wait for things to happen, or you can make things happen.  Prospecting allows you to insert some control into your salary or commissions.  It allows you to progress beyond those who are complacent.  Remember, “If you’re not going forward, you’re going backward.”

Stages to a Customer

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTING

Obsession, Utilization, Implementation.

 

 

 

 

INTERVIEWING

Responsive listening,

Important fact finding information gathering,

Closing for the next appointment.

 

PRESENTATION

Tell the story,

Demonstrate features and benefits,

Show the sizzle.

 

CLOSING

Ask for the order.

 

 

Be obsessive, but disciplined.  Utilize everything you have at your fingertips; then implement.  It’s a proven recipe for success.

 

INTERVIEWING

The first ten or fifteen seconds you spend with a prospect has a major

Impact on the way the rest of the meeting will go.  Make sure you are

Sending the messages you want to send.

 

GET THE PERSONS INTEREST – Say something that is interesting and exciting, hit a hot button.

RESPONSIVE LISTENING – Verbally communicate – paying attention to the words that come out of the prospect’s mouth, as well as non verbal.  Get the prospect talking, and listen to what’s important to him or her.

 

IDENTIFY THE CUSTOMERS NEEDS – Take notes, write down the important points.  Find out the past, the present, and the future.

 

KNOW WHAT TO ASK – When probing for information that will lead to a sale, it is all too easy to ask unproductive questions.  The key is knowing what to ask. Such is the effect of language.  Our thinking is influenced by what other people say, and their thinking is directed by what we say.  In this sense, selling is a word game.  Words have the power to influence.  But you must know the rules of the game, and speaking in positive language is one of the very important rules.

You have the ability to choose the words you use.  You can direct someone’s thoughts toward an idea, or away from an idea.  It’s up to you.

 

ASK TO SHOW YOUR PRODUCT – Now is the time to make the presentation

It’s important to realize that you will rarely get all of the information on the first pass.

Selling is like a dance in which there is a lot of give and take.  You ask questions and get

Initial information.  This information is incorporated into the presentation.

 

 

PRESENTATION
TELL THE STORY

              STATE THE NEED

              STATE THE BENEFIT

              GIVE FEATURES AND BENEFITS – Check with the customer for positive

              Feedback look for the yes.

              INCLUDE THE SIZZLE – The story, why these products are better than others,

              The “advantage”.

 

 

 

CLOSE

 

            SUMMARIZE BENEFITS

              ASK FOR THE SALE

              ASK FOR A REFERRAL

 

 

 

              One of the reasons that there are so few superstars in our profession

              Is because so few people pay the total price for success.  Part of that

              Price is asking for the order and not taking the initial no for an answer.

 

SELLING FLOOR CARE SYSTEMS”

Few areas of our sanitary maintenance field offer greater opportunities to achieve excellent market share than knowing how to sell floor care systems.

Once you have proven that your floor care products and systems will give the performance and satisfaction that your customer demands. Then other products such as restroom care, carpet care and other specialty products will follow.  And…a good floor care system is less likely to be lost to competitive sources.

Key factors are product knowledge, focusing on problem areas, getting the test demo, and service.

 

FLOOR FINISHES

Product Knowledge:

Acquire a thorough knowledge of your various finishes, i.e. solid content, square feet coverage, type of maintenance such as regular speed buffable, high speed buffable, is it spray buffable or dry buffable, drying time, can product be used as a base seal.  This information, to name a few, contributes to your product knowledge and ability to provide the necessary information to your customer or prospect and gain their confidence in both you and your product.

 

System Application:

In order to intelligently recommend the best floor finish and related products for your prospect or customer, you must acquire upfront information about locations, type and quantity of equipment being used, available labor, time and budget limitations and other pertinent information.

 

Focus on Customer Problems:

Probe into areas where your customer or prospect is less than satisfied with his floor care products or program.  Utilizing your product information and experience, recommend solutions utilizing your products.

 

Get That Test Demo:

Selling floor finish and related products, particularly to a large volume user, will usually require proving your product claims as to performance by getting the customer or prospect to agree to test the product in a traffic area.  On a preliminary basis, showing coated tiles can demonstrate gloss and leveling.

 

Service:

Servicing the account, particularly follow up to see that proper procedures are being used to achieve optimum performance, is extremely important.  Service includes other factors such as seeing that the customer’s deliveries are being made on time, billing is correct, customer properly supplied with literature, MSDS information, etc.

FLOOR MAINTENANCE

SUMMER FLOOR MAINTENANCE IN SCHOOLS

 

 

 

During the summer months, when schools are being refurbished for the next school year, problems have been encountered when the custodian would strip and recoat the classroom floors, replace the furniture, close up the room and leave it for the opening of school.

 

When school would begin, it would be found that the furniture in the room or rooms would be stuck to the floor finish.  The moving of furniture would result in the floor tile coming up at the same time.  The curing of the floor finish is retarded by humid conditions and insufficient are movement.

 

This condition can be easily resolved by following the procedures below:

 

The classrooms should be adequately ventilated before beginning the stripping operation and for 1 to 2 hours after the last coat of finish is applied.

 

All floor finishes should be applied in thin coats to promote drying and proper film curing.  The recoat time should be extended to 1 hour.  Ideally, the furniture should be replaced the next day, or if it is not feasible, two hours after the application of the last coat.

 

Fans may be used to promote drying, but do not position them directly onto the floor, but toward the ceiling.

 

It is imperative that the floor finish is completely cured before furniture is placed on top of it.  If it is not, the finish will just as soon bond to the furniture as to the floor.

 

By following the preceding points, the best curing of the film should result for the conditions encountered in schools.

 

Chris Guillot

Fairlane Services L.L.C.

01/21/09

MAINTENANCE OF MARBLE

AND MARBLE LIKE FLOORING

 

In theory once a marble floor has been factory sealed, the maintenance is easy.  Simply keep it so clean that it never has a chance to become soiled or stained.  Over the years it will acquire a soft patina which grows more beautiful with use.

 

In reality, this type of constant maintenance may be more costly than coating the floor.

 

Sealed marble surfaces are usually polished to a very high gloss.  The application of a seal is sometimes impossible because the surface is difficult to wet and finishes and seals will simply bead up when applied.

 

On marble floors that can be “wet out” (which includes most) the application of two or three thin coats of a stone seal is recommended. 

 

To maintain the appearance, Stone seals can be sprayed buffed to remove light soil and scratches.

 

When the surface needs cleaning, do not use a soap based cleaner or one which is highly alkaline or “built”.  Clean periodically with a 2 to 6 oz/gal. Neutral cleaner are what is recommended.

 

Do not use sweeping compounds or treated dust mops to remove loose soil. Always use an untreated dust mop.

 

Use mild polishing and buffing pad (white) to spray buff in order to keep from scratching the substrate.  Use walk off mats at the entrances.  Mopping daily is recommended and more frequently in bad weather.

 

Marble is very beautiful flooring material and great and constant care is required to preserve and foster its beauty.

 

 

Chris Guillot

Fairlane Services

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SELLING FLOOR FINISHES

 

 

 

The questions that arise most often when discussing floor finishes with distributors are, “why do you make so many?” and “How do you know what product to sell where?”

 

Each  floor finish is formulated to accomplish a particular job.  Too often, people sell a floor finish to an end user because they have had success with that particular finish at another account or refuse to sell a particular floor finish because they have experience failure of that product at a particular account.  Even though there are many finishes, by asking the right questions of your customers, you can easily ascertain which product best fits the job.

 

In selling a floor finish, the first question one should ask of the customer is, “What do you expect of your floor finish?”  If you were to sell a floor finish that has a satin gloss rather than a mirror-like finish to someone who really wanted and expected an extremely glossy floor, obviously he/she would feel the floor finish was not satisfactory.

 

The second question to ask when selling a floor finish is, “what type of maintenance procedures do you use?”  Anyone who does not do routine maintenance (dust mop their floor on a regular basis, damp mop as needed) and spray buff to maintain the original gloss of a floor finish would be extremely disappointed with a high gloss mirror-like finish.  The deterioration of the gloss is much more noticeable on a high gloss finish with poor maintenance habits.  Someone who insist on dry buffing floors for eight hours a day will be extremely disappointed with a hard, non-buffable, non-movable plastic finish.

 

After you determine what a customer expects of a finish and what type of maintenance procedures he/she has, ask about equipment.  Different types of floor machines, as well as the different speeds, will also determine what type of daily maintenance program you should recommend.  For example, the ultra high speeds are not as effective for removing black heel marks.  Consequently, you would be much better off to sell a product for spray buffing because it contains a solvent to aid in removing black heel marks.  Also, someone using the ultra high speed equipment will find much more success with rejuvenators because it is specifically designed to quickly restore and maintain the gloss of a floor.

 

In summary, ask the 3 questions:

  • What do you expect of a floor finish?
  • What type of maintenance procedures are used?
  • What kind of maintenance equipment do you use?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Detergent

 

 

 

A detergent, most simply defined, is a material that removes soil.  This material may be a soap, which is produced by the action of an alkali, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide and a fat or fatty acid, such as coconut oil or tall oil fatty acid.  A detergent may also be a completely synthetic material which acts to remove soil.

 

The word detergent implies other properties that are necessary for soil removal.

 

The detergent must have the ability to “wet out” the substrate which it is intended to clean.  This necessitates that the material reduce the interfacial tension between water and the substrate, so that the detergent will spread out the water to cover a much larger area that water would alone.  Therefore, the detergent must be a wetting agent and a spreading agent.

 

Now that the material has “wet out” the surface, it must now remove the soil.  In order to accomplish this, the detergent must contain a portion of its molecules that is lipophic or “loves oil” and will then become part of it.  At the same time, this molecule must have a portion of it that “loves water” or is hydrophic in order to bring the lipophic portion and the soil into the water of dilution.  Hence, the detergent must be an emulsifier.

 

During this operation, the detergent must have the ability to penetrate through the dirt film in order to completely wet it out and emulsify the entire soil load.  It must, then, be a good penetrant.

 

Now that the soil is emulsified, the detergent must “hold onto” it in order to keep it from re-depositing onto the substrate.  Therefore, the detergent must have soil suspension properties.

 

There are many surface active agents or “surfactants” available today.  There are those which are good wetting agents, but not good emulsifiers and then there are those that are good emulsifiers, but cannot suspend soil.

 

Therefore, it is necessary for the formulation of a detergent type cleansing agent to use only those materials that possess all of the necessary properties needed and that this material be compatible with any additives that are part of the formulation.

 

WHAT IS Ph?

 

 

 

 

Don’t be afraid of the chemical term pH!

 

It is defined chemically as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.  Only those materials that will disassociate or ionize in water will have pH.  Hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid whose chemical formula is HCL will ionize in water to give hydrogen ions, H+ and chlorine ions, CI-.  Sodium hydroxide, NaOH will ionize in water to yield Na+ ions & OH- ions.  Hydrogen ions are a measure of the acidity of a material while OH- ions or hydroxyl ions are a measure of alkalinity.

 

The formula for pure water is H + OH- meaning that there is an equal number of acid ions H+ and OH- hydroxyl ions which offset each other to form a neutral compound.  The hydrogen ion concentration of water is 1 x 10 -7.  The logarithm is -7 and the negative logarithm is 7.  The pH of water is therefore, 7 and pH of 7 indicates a neutral material.

 

The pH scale runs from 1 to 14.  Any material that is below a pH of 7 is acidic in nature and anything above a pH of 7 is alkaline in nature.  The further you go down the scale from pH 7 the more acid the product is and the further one goes up the scale from 7 the more alkaline the product is.

 

Since the scale is based on logarithms of 10 each unit on the scale is a factor of 10.  For example, if orange juice has a pH 3.5 and beer has a pH of 4.5, orange juice is 10 times more acidic then beer.

 

Acid bowl cleaners can have a pH less than 1 showing that they are very acidic in nature.  This pH is necessary in products of this type to remove scale and iron deposits from inside the bowl.  These soils are alkaline in nature.  Therefore, an acid is needed to remove them.

 

Most soils however are acid in nature and therefore, need alkaline products to remove them.  An all purpose cleaner or degreaser may have a pH of anywhere between 9 and 13 depending on the type and quantity of the soil that the product is expected to encounter.  Products that are formulated for light duty cleaning may have a pH of 9 or 10 whereas a degreaser may have a pH of 13, meaning that a pH of 13, the degreaser is 1000 times more alkaline than the all purpose cleaner at a pH of 10.